This article will discuss the contribution of Halford John Mackinder, one of the earliest and most influential of the contributors to the discussion. Around the young geographer, Halford J. Mackinder, grew concerned with the changing balance of international power. He argued that. This largely outdated view influenced some geopolitical thinking. Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British geographer who wrote a paper in.
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Sir Halford John Mackinder PC 15 February — 6 March was an English halfprdacademic, politician, the first Principal of University Extension College, Reading which became the University of Reading and Director of the London School of Economicswho is regarded as one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.
At Oxford he started studying natural sciences, specialising in zoology under Henry Nottidge Moseleywho had been the naturalist on the Challenger expedition. When he turned to the study of history, he remarked that he was returning “to an old interest and took up modern history with the idea of seeing how the theory of evolution would appear in gropolitics development”. Haltord was a strong proponent of treating both physical geography and human geography as a single discipline.
Mackinder served as President of the Oxford Union in He received a degree in biology in and one in modern history the next year. As Mackinder himself put it, “a platform has been given to a geographer”. This was arguably at the time the most prestigious academic position for a British geographer. Inhe was the first Principal of University Extension College, Reading, a role he retained until he was succeeded, inby William Macbride Childs.
The college became the University of Reading ina geopolotics that owed no small debt to his early stewardship of the institution. Inhe was one of the founders of the Geographical Associationwhich promotes the teaching of geography in schools. He later became chairman of the GA from to and served as its President from Inhe was one of the founders of the London School of Economics.
At Oxford, Mackinder was the driving force behind the geopoliticss of a School of Geography hzlford Inhe published Britain and the British Seasgeopolitiics included the first comprehensive geomorphology of the British Isles and which became a classic in regional geography.
The Geographical Pivot of History – Wikipedia
He was a member of the Coefficients dining clubset up in by the Fabian campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webbwhich brought together social reformers and advocates of national efficiency. Whilst the Geopolitifs Theory initially received little attention outside geography, this theory would later exercise some influence on the foreign policies haldord world powers.
Possibly disappointed at not getting a full chairmanship, Mackinder left Oxford and became director of the London School of Economics in the same year . Afterhe concentrated on advocating the cause of imperial unity and lectured only part-time.
He was elected to Parliament in January as Unionist Party member for the Glasgow Camlachie constituency and was defeated in His next major work, Democratic Ideals and Reality: A Study in the Politics of Reconstructionappeared in The book’s most famous quote was: These were created by the peace negotiators but proved to be ineffective bulwarks in although this may be seen as a failure of other, later statesmen during the interbellum.
The principal concern of mackindeer work was to warn of the possibility of another major war a warning also given by economist John Maynard Keynes.
Mackinder was anti- Bolshevikand as British High Commissioner in Southern Russia in late and gdopoliticsduring the Russian Civil War, mackinded stressed the need for Britain to continue her support to the White Russian forces, which he attempted to unite.
He reiterated and expanded his Heartland view of the world, suggesting that the Atlantic Ocean would be jumped, with North Halfotd influence pulled into the region by its use of Britain as an “moated aerodrome”. Elsewhere in the world, beyond the “girdle of deserts and wilderness”, and the “Great Ocean” region of the Indo-Pacific Rim, was the “Monsoon gfopolitics area of India and China that would grow in power.
Both the two fathers of geopolitics and conservative politicians believed that the development of international transportation on land was growing to such a high rate “that the advantage of the sea powers was more of historical importance . Hence, they argued that the pivot of the global political power was the land control of the Eurasia while a naval power -such as the Great Britain- was playing a secondary role.
They disagreed about the Mackinder’s emphasis on serving the British Empire . Mackinder’s work paved the way for the establishment of geography as a distinct discipline in the United Kingdom. His role in fostering the teaching of geography is probably greater than that of any other single British geographer. Whilst Oxford did not appoint a professor of Geography untilboth the University of Liverpool and University of Wales, Aberystwyth established professorial chairs in Geography in Mackinder himself became a full professor in Geography in the University of London London School of Economics in Mackinder is often credited with introducing two new terms into the English language: Inhe received the Charles P.
Daley medal from the American Geographical Societyand in was awarded the Royal Geographical Society ‘s Patron’s Gold Medal for his service in the advancement of the science of Geography. The Heartland Theory and more generally classical geopolitics and geostrategy were extremely influential in the making of US strategic policy during the period of the Cold War.
Evidence of Mackinder’s Heartland Theory can be found in the works of geopolitician Dimitri Kitsikisparticularly in his geopolitical model ” Intermediate Region “. To date, at least one academic study, by Mehmet Akif Okur, has critiqued the main perspective of his works. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Geopolitics in United States Strategic Policy, — Archived from the original PDF on 8 March Retrieved 10 February Geographical JournalVol.
Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas.
Halford Mackinder – Wikipedia
Appleton and company, Mackinder, The geographical pivot of history. Geographical Journal, 23, pp. Hitler and the magic Nazism Hitler e il Nazismo magico in Italian. The London Gazette Supplement.
The Geographical Pivot of History
Retrieved June 27, Geographical Journal, — Hitler and the magic Nazism Hitler e il Nazismo magico. Retrieved Nov 10, Encyclopedia of Human Geography.
Geographygeopoliticsgeostrategy. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Halford Mackinder. Wikisource has the text of a Encyclopedia Americana article about Halford Mackinder. Director of the London School of Economics — Member of Parliament for Glasgow Camlachie —