Abstract. VALDERRAMA BEDOYA, Francisco Javier. Emmanuel Mounier ‘s Personalism and His Relation with Colombian Political Constitution. Opin. jurid. Colectivismo Se convierte el sujeto en un número. Individualismo Incapacita la comunicación. Objetivos. Unión cuerpo-alma. Salir de uno. Transcript of Emmanuel Mounier – Personalismo Cree en la esperanza frente a la angustia y el pesimismo Acentúa el valor de la persona.
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This paper discusses the need to answer the question of what it is to be a person, if we want to give students a truly all-round education, in accordance with the purposes of the European Higher Education Area. Since the Personalist philosophy of Mounier is built around the concept of the person, we explain the structures of the human person according to Mounier, proposing how they might be promoted in higher education through cooperative learning.
Education; cooperative learning; Bologna; Mounier; personalist philosophy. Preparation for the job market, preparation for life – as active citizens in a democratic society Humphreys – personal development, and the acquisition and maintenance of an advanced basis of knowledge are the four purposes defined by the Bologna Working Group on Qualifications Frameworks23 as goals of the European Higher Education Area EHEA.
What is it to be a person? The contribution of this paper is to answer this question on the basis of Mounier’s philosophy, and to propose cooperative learning as a methodology for the development of those aspects of the students derive from the proposed concept of the human person.
Personalist philosophy is used in this paper to explore this concept in greater depth for two reasons. The first consists in the fact that this current of philosophical thought is constructed technically around the concept of the person Burgosconsidered the element of experience from which reality is known, and is, moreover, a philosophy committed to solving the problems of everyday life, forming itself again according to what reality requires Berenguerwhich is particularly interesting in a changeable environment like the present.
The second reason is based on the concepts of flexibility and constructive criticism that characterize Personalism, which accepts any line of thought which might help to understand reality even when that thought seems contrary to its own theoretical approach Mounier ; this flexibility greatly enhances the student’s chances of achievement, because it implies a breadth of vision that allows reality to be perceived, not only in one direction, but in all possible directions.
Mounier sees the person as a relational being, stressing the need for the other that the human being has for his personal growth. In addition, these personal and relational aspects are realized through the cognitive, volitional and affective faculties of the student which should be comprehensively promoted according to EHEA guidelines.
The purposes of this paper are three. First, it seeks to clarify the concept of the human person by first providing a conceptualization comprising the anthropological existentialist view, and a second conceptualization which adds Mounier’s Personalist contributions to the former. Second, using the theoretical research method, it aims to analyze in depth those dimensions of the human person proposed by Mounier, which would enrich the student’s all-round development.
Third and last, and in parallel with the second objective, it synthesizes the suitability of cooperative learning as a methodology for the development of the competencies proposed by Bologna and promoted by the Personalism of Mounier, using the deductive conceptual method.
The starting point is the conceptualization of the human person which will serve as a guide throughout the article and we discuss the extent to which the changes in the concept of education instigated by the Bologna Process can be effected through cooperative learning.
In the second and third sections we delve into the personal universe of Mounerian philosophy, explaining how each of the aspects and potentialities of the person can be fostered through cooperation.
Finally, we incorporate the contributions of Mounier into the initial concept of the human person, and we suggest further research in order to demonstrate with greater clarity which dimensions of the student must be nurtured and cultivated in the sphere of university education.
If we want to achieve the all-round development of the student during the educational process, it is essential to take the concept of the human person as our reference point, as only in that way we may know the student in all his breadth and complexity. This work adopts the anthropological view of the human being of Thomas Aquinas, followed by that of existentialist philosophy and Personalism, which sees the human person as a unity of body and spirit, through which it knows senses and intelligencedesires will and feels affectivity ; both intelligence and will are faculties that refer to another entity, because the person knows something and desires something, whereas affectivity is a purely subjective aspect of the person, which accompanies his actions.
The values of the human person can be explained on this basis, since these are the ideals that guide the person in his personal growth, and in this way generate the motivations or reasons for his actions. Depending on his chosen reason, the person will adopt one attitude or another, which will then give shape to the act; these acts may be cognitive and volitional, but the person first knows something -knows the truth of something- and then wants it -if he thinks it is good- because he cannot desire what he does not known, so that the volitive act must be preceded by the cognitive act.
In addition, the attitude adopted towards the act will affect the person’s feelings or affective sphere, which always accompanies him in the execution of his acts. Responsibilities arising from such acts will leave scope for a feedback process which, through the emotions, will allow him to judge whether his actions are, indeed, directed towards the fulfillment of his values and, therefore, towards his personal fulfillment.
The main innovation of the Bologna Process is to broaden the concept of education, from a process in which both instruction and acquisition of knowledge predominate, to one in which, besides knowing, the student has to learn to act and to be. Although it is not the object of this research to investigate the different cooperative learning techniques, it is necessary to highlight the suitability of the cooperative learning methodology to the acquisition of the skills considered most important for the professional and personal development of students under the requirements of Bologna, also considering that team work is recognized today as one of the most important demands of the labor market Mathieu et al.
Also, Johnson and Johnson, R. This educational methodology allows an enhancement of all three anthropological aspects of the person, cognitive, volitional and emotional, i. While Personalism is not wholly identified with Emmanuel Mounier’s thought, he is considered the founder and one of the most influential philosophers of this philosophical tendency Burgos The choice of this author in reviewing the foundations of education proposed by the EHEA is based on his intention to “awaken every person to his vocation and encourage him toward a life that assures him not the maximum output, but the maximum expansion” Mounier One of the challenges of higher education must be precisely to direct students to where they believe they can give most of themselves, that is, to their optimum expansion.
Mounier’s philosophy revolves around designated structures of the personal universe, which constitute the basis for understanding the human being and, hence, to determine that the following aspects of the person should be dealt with or developed: According to the Personalist anthropological view, if the human being is understood as a unity of body and spirit, then it is necessary to cultivate both, whilst seeking a balance between them.
Mounier clearly expresses this unity of flesh and spirit in person, when he says, “I cannot think without being, or be without my body”14and he structures the process of personalization of the human being around this basic anthropological idea.
Thereafter, it is essential that students learn to reason correctly about the reality they are studying, according to their level of knowledge on the subject and their level of mental maturity Vygotsky ; this capacity will allow them, first, to properly understand reality in keeping with their experience and previous knowledge, and second, to develop the skills of being creative and decisive in the face of change, to argue a point adequately, to synthesize and structure a speech, and also to develop analytical and research skills.
In this way, students acquire the competencies of knowledge and skills in accordance with the EHEA approach, which considers it essential to involve the student in the reality he is studying so that he can confront difficulties with confidence, and so that he can approach any issue or situation he is presented in a creative way Birenbaum et al.
One of the fundamental principles of Personalism is that the human being should not only look inward, but also outward, because he achieves personal fulfillment not just by and in himself, but also and primarily through others Rumayor ; hence the appropriateness of cooperative learning to the implementation of this philosophy in the development of this ability, which is considered by the EHEA as one of the major skills enmanuel be developed in the university taking into account the fact that pesronalismo work is recognized today as one of the most important demands of the labor market Mathieu et al.
Mounier says that communication presupposes as original acts going outside of emmwnuel, understanding, assuming responsibilities, giving, and being loyal. The relationship with others requires, if it is to be successful, respect for their being; on this premise, going out of oneself involves discovering all potentialities which, belonging to one’s own being and to that of others, can only be realized through communication between them.
Mounier considers the person as a union of communication and interioritybearing in mind the necessary complementarity between both. If the human being cultivates his mohnier dimension, this personalismoo result in improved relations with others, since knowing himself involves discovering the potentialities of the person, many of which cannot emmanuell real without the participation of other people.
Both aspects are essential for personal growth, but it is essential to find a balance between the subjectivity which comes from privacy and the objectivity invited by communication, such one may nourish the other.
The human being needs to look personaliso himself to deepen his thoughts and to find the basis of every decision in the direction of his life; in this way his inner life is enriched and new possibilities of action open up which may also benefit others. The interiority of the person is directly related to the sense of purpose or vocation which he seeks to realize through his actions and that may be simply a value, such as justice, truth, or love, or that may be defined by his calling or profession.
From the point of view of Mounerian Personalism this mission of persomalismo teacher is crucial, as it helps the student to discover his goal and to value his freedom, from which he can decide what to do in order to grow as a person. There is an essential link between the decisions that a person makes in the course of his life, because through them he is making his way to his goal, or in Mounier’s words, “when I choose this or that, I choose myself indirectly in each decision, and in making the choice, I am constructing myself” Teacher’s role is to accompany the student in order to help personakismo discover his achievements, and personaliwmo encourage him in the face of difficulties, so that he gains confidence and his self-esteem is boosted.
Mounier suggests “we must restore the personalsmo sense of responsibility and of his enormous power when he has faith in himself” The sense of freedom with which person is born enables him in the course of his life to achieve his independence, and that is where education plays a fundamental role.
To understand the possibilities available for self-fulfillment in a person it is essential to understand that, like all his being, his freedom is limited, restricted, conditional, since he will otherwise think he has rights that are not in fact his due. A person’s own way of being, his freedom, is conditioned by what is given to him, as such Mounier highlights:.
I am given to myself and the world preexists me. This being my nature, there are multiple factors weighing on my very freedom, that which comes from myself, from my particular being which limits it, and that which comes from the world, from the necessities which constrain it and the values which drive it. Only this responsible kind of freedom ensures survival and coexistence and it must, therefore, be exercised with extreme vigilance.
Emmanuel Mounier – Personalismo by Pablo Martinez on Prezi
It is vital to make the learner understand this concept of conditional freedom from his earliest years, by gradually helping him to take personal responsibility for his decisions. It is necessary to stress that everyone must bear the consequences of his actions, so that, knowing himself responsible for them, the person learns to properly consider the positive and negative aspects of each decision, and to act prudently.
Communication enriches only if the person is able to recognize the dignity of the mounoer. What determines the dignity of a being is what that being is, and, consequently, it is the transcendence and the spiritual nature ell the human being which make him worthy of mouniee lofty dignity Mounier and of the high degree of respect due to him. The role of education in this regard should be to make the person expect much of himself in his respect for and compliance with the persoonalismo mentioned values of truth and goodness, because this is the way in which he can uphold his dignity and grow as person.
Every human being is forced into a relationship with the other, and that relationship often requires, at least partially, the sacrifice of own interests; the person personalism, therefore, accept this condition for his personal growth.
The principle of treating a pegsonalismo as an end in himself and never as a means to an end, must become the watchword of his actions and feelings, if he wants to show respect for his dignity and that of others. Commitment and action are closely linked in Mounerian perwonalismo, and action is key in Personalism also personzlismo, as a practical philosophy, it does not admit mere reflection on ideas which are not then translated into reality.
All structures of the universe of the Mounerian person converge in this final one, along with several of the central ideas of his philosophy and their important connection with the main function of education in the formation of the person.
Students must be taught that spirit is not given to them totally realized, but that it has the capacity to surpass what is given with what they build upon it Lacroix ; in other words, it is important to grow the student confidence in his own potential. Freedom transforms the person into a being with infinite opportunities to surpass himself through action.
In each action the person performs, emmanue, goes forward or backward in the realization of his being and consequently, he is impoverished or enriched as a person. However, for this action to be effective, the mouniet must, as well as personxlismo persistent and taking responsibility for his actions, commit himself to channeling all his actions in the same direction, towards what he has chosen as his life goal.
The educator’s role from the point of view of Mounier’s philosophy can, therefore, be summed up as helping students to become aware of their potential and teaching them to realize it. This section aims to analyze in depth how those dimensions of the human person proposed by Mounier would be developed in practice through cooperative learning.
Since truth lies in judgment, and is an adaptation between reality and intelligence, the teacher’s role is to enlighten the truth of a reality which at first seems distant, complicated or hidden, in a process that always goes from the exterior and concrete level of the reality, to the deep and abstract level of knowledge.
All people have a natural desire to know Aristotle trans. The construction of knowledge is especially rich in cooperative learning, because it takes place in two parallel processes; on the one hand, the reality to be studied is perceived and apprehended by each group member individually, but on the other hand, when what each member of the team has perceived about that experience is shared, a collective knowledge of it is constructed, which will be personailsmo complete and deeper than individual knowledge Huber For communication to be effective, the people who pesonalismo in it must adopt an empathetic attitude requiring, besides respect, other attitudes such as dialogue, active listening, flexibility and constructive criticism.
Regarding equality, the dependence of each human being on others for his balanced growth is based on the fact that, whilst all people have the same essential characteristics, they possess different personaalismo of being, and this dependence leads to communication and the creation mohnier communities Aristotle, trans. In other words, in the course of his university career, the student should gradually see what his goals are, and the best way the teacher can guide him in this decision is with regard personailsmo how pursue them, since, whatever they may be, they can be attained through self-regulation, commitment, perseverance and responsibility.
Cooperative learning facilitates the development of the value which motivates a person to adopt this mounker, since this value is his own personal good, and teamwork shows that acting on the basis of these criteria leads to better long-term results, as previously explained.
So, if the teacher teaches the student to use his willpower to maintain this attitude in his relationship with the members of his team, the student will see the benefit obtained for the group by so doing, and will continue to adopt it in the pursuit of mouniee own personal goals.
Emmamuel fear of failure limits a person’s freedom of action and, consequently, his creativity in achieving personal fulfillment, because of which it is important for the teachers to stress the importance of being able to meet challenges, rather than focusing on their outcome. Group emmanudl allows individual responsibility to be diluted in that of the group, thus encouraging its members when they have to carry out their tasks; however, the fact that each person knows that he is responsible not only for his own success and failure, but also for that of the other team members, exerts a pressure that will prevent him from relaxing his efforts.
Books by Emmanuel Mounier
In addition, as mentioned above, cooperative learning allows the playing of different roles on a rotating basis within the group Johnson et al. Cooperative learning provides an exceptionally good context in which the personnalismo can become aware of his conditional and responsible freedom, because, on the one hand, he will have to comply with certain rules, which must be explained to him by the teacher, in order to participate in teamwork Veenman et al.
Consequently, these are excellent opportunities in which students can learn to set limits on the actions of those who do not respect the freedom of others, and in which e, of them can become aware of his own limitations and of his responsibility towards every decision taken.
To achieve this it is important for the teacher to communicate an attitude of respect and of giving support unselfishly, as well as to develop certain skills, such as obtaining synergies from the contributions of team members, resolving conflicts positively, reducing tensions in the group and seeking consensus Johnson et al.
Attitudes of responsibility, perseverance and commitment, in addition to personalissmo aforementioned flexibility, constructive criticism, dialogue and support, can be promoted through cooperative learning and they are important, not only for the good of the group, but also for the good of each member of the team according to his personal goals. Martin and Dowson emphasize that connectivity on a personal and emotional level in the academic context provides scope for the students’ commitments and achievements.
The development of these attitudes through cooperative learning will strengthen student’s self-esteem Bertucci et al. The educator must respect the option chosen by the student, but his function, as guide, can be very valuable to show him how emmanel give the most of himself.
In this fourth and last section we suggest to complement the initial concept of the person with the contributions of other educators, as John H.
Newman Morales ; Personalismoo and Ernest L. With reference to the contribution of Mounier, he stresses the Thomist anthropological view of considering the human being as a unity of body and spirit in the necessary balance to permit his full and healthy self-realization, and the development of his creativity.
He further emphasizes the personal growth of the human being, which is nourished from two sources: One, his own self, which involves the nurturing of his inner ppersonalismo and steers the free choice of goal that gives meaning to his life; the other, an entity distinct from himself, produced through communication, enriched through cooperation between people, and thus leading to the existence of the community. Everything that encompasses the human person defines his dignity, specifically his capacity for transcendence and his spiritual nature.
His dignity determines the values which motivate his actions, and since, as explained above, the person is oriented by persobalismo essence to seek what mlunier true and to desire what is good Mouniier, trans. However, it is difficult to act in accordance with these values when the person is forced to confront reality and e,manuel free to personalismk so with regard to the former, the student must commit himself to being persistent in his self-regulation, and with regard to the latter, he must learn to respect the limits imposed by the existence of others, to take responsibility for his actions, and to peraonalismo his creativity to fulfill himself.
If he succeeds in acting in accordance with his values, he will improve his self-esteem and this, in turn, will strengthen his sense of his dignity as a person Delgado This paper proposes cooperative learning as an appropriate methodology to help student to discover and understand these different structures that shape him. However, it would be interesting to investigate other ways in which the teacher must make the student see what he is capable of and help him develop more fully those aspects of himself which, ultimately, can help the student to overcome the challenges moujier his personal and professional lives.
International Philosophical Quarterly, 47 1: