ASKEP MASTOIDITIS PDF

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Donovanosis or granuloma inguinale is caused by infection with Klebsiella granulomatisformerly known as Donovania granulomatisand Calymmatobacterium granulomatisand was recently renamed following comparative DNA sequencing studies. Prominent local lymphadenopathy usually ensues, often leading to further ulcerative lesions in the skin overlying the nodes involved.

In the absence of treatment the disease may spread locally and cause lymphoedema and genital mutilation. Rare cases of systemic spread have been reported.

Transmission to infants during birth has been reported. The disease is rarely reported in the United Kingdom and patients seen are likely to have lived in one of the main endemic areas, which are currently in India, Papua New Guinea, among Australian aboriginals, Brazil, and South Africa.

Screening is recommended only for patients presenting with unusual forms of ulceration where other diagnoses have been ruled out and a suggestive travel history is obtained. Screening of asymptomatic patients attending UK genitourinary medicine clinics is not indicated. Contacts of known cases should undergo careful examination.

This method was that originally described by Donovan in 3 and has been the most widely used since then. Donovan bodies show up well with Giemsa, Wright’s, and Leishman stains. Surface debris from purulent ulcers should be removed gently with a cotton swab.

After this the lesion may be pressed directly on to a glass slide, or material collected by rolling a swab over the lesion and then on to a slide.

This approach to diagnosis works well in patients whose lesions have plentiful Donovan bodies. Additional methods listed below are more suitable for cases with low numbers of Donovan bodies. Biopsy may be considered for smear negative lesions, large lesions with easily removed friable tissue, any lesion where malignancy is suspected, and less common lesions of the mouth, anus, cervix, and uterus. Examination of biopsy material is more time consuming and may involve greater discomfort for the patient.

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Biopsy tissue may be examined with the stains recommended for smears and also with silver stains or slow Giemsa. Pretreatment of specimens with antibiotics such as vancomycin and metronidazole is necessary to remove contaminants.

A polymerase chain reaction PCR test has been developed in Australia 1112 and is used on a small scale in the Australian eradication programme. Testing facilities are located in Queensland and Perth. Culture and PCR are only available in special centres. Use of biopsy depends whether smear diagnosis is achievable and whether biopsy is acceptable to the patient.

Sites tested depend on clinical presentation. Before submission this guideline was circulated to Nigel O’Farrell and Francis Bowden, two leading international experts with knowledge of donovanosis. Their comments were noted and incorporated into the current document. The author obtained and read all published papers dealing with diagnosis of donovanosis for a review published in All articles retrieved by the mastoidutis search strategy that deal asskep diagnosis have been consulted as the total number is relatively small and manageable.

Askep Mastoiditis

No systematic reviews have been published in this area. Research on donovanosis has been conducted by only two specialists in the United Kingdom JR and Dr Nigel O’Farrell who have both agreed the recommendations in this guideline.

Advice has also been obtained from Francis Bowden a leading Australian expert. Obtaining material for smear examination of Donovan bodies carries no hazards, involves minimal discomfort to patients, and allows confirmation of the diagnosis and planning of suitable treatment. Where biopsy is undertaken use of local anaesthetic may reduce discomfort. The use of punch biopsies is a standard dermatological procedure for diagnosis of skin diseases and carries the following potential hazards:.

The recommendations given above do not call for any changes in the current organisation of care. All cases of donovanosis should be subjected to clinicopathological review. National Askpe for the management of donovanosis granuloma inguinale. Sex Transm Infect ; 75 Suppl 1: Potential conflicts of interest: National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Sex Transm Infect v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Recommended tests for suspected clinical cases of donovanosis Examination of stained smears for Donovan bodies evidence level IV, recommendation grade C This method was that originally described by Donovan in 3 and has been the most widely used since then. Specimen collection 5 Surface debris from purulent ulcers should be removed gently with a cotton swab.

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Biopsy evidence level IV, recommendation grade C Biopsy mastolditis be considered for smear negative lesions, large lesions with easily removed friable tissue, any lesion where malignancy is suspected, and less common lesions of the mouth, anus, cervix, and uterus. Recommended sites for testing Base or edge of ulcerated lesions. Factors that alter tests recommended or sites tested Culture and PCR are only available in special sakep.

Risk groups Homosexual men no alteration to standard recommendation. Other groups Pregnant women no alteration to standard mastoifitis. Recommendation for frequency of repeat testing in an asymptomatic patient Not applicable. Recommendation for test of cure Clinical assessment without sampling is sufficient.

Methods used to mastoidktis recommendations Research on donovanosis has been conducted by only two specialists in the United Kingdom JR and Dr Nigel O’Farrell who have both agreed the recommendations in this guideline. Health benefits, side effects, and risks of recommendations Obtaining masotiditis for smear examination of Donovan bodies carries no hazards, involves minimal discomfort to patients, and allows confirmation of the diagnosis and planning of suitable treatment.

The use of punch biopsies is a standard dermatological procedure for diagnosis of skin diseases and carries the following potential hazards: Local bleeding and bruising in the surrounding tissues. Applicability The recommendations given above do not call for any changes in the current organisation of care. Auditable outcome measures All cases of donovanosis should be subjected to clinicopathological review.

Abbreviations PCR – polymerase chain reaction. Footnotes Potential conflicts of interest: Int J Systematic Bacteriol 49 — J Med Microbiol 48 — Ulcerating granuloma of the pudenda. Genitourin Med 66 — The technic of the tissue spread method for demonstrating Donovan bodies. J Vener Dis Inform 29 — Sex Transm Infect 78 — Tissue section donovan bodies—identification through slow Giemsa overnight technique.

Dermatologica — J Med Microbiol 46 — J Clin Microbiol 35 — Clin Infect Dis 28 — A colorimetric detection system for Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.

Askep Mastoiditis

Sex Transm Infect 76 — The diagnosis and treatment of donovanosis granuloma inguinale. Genitourin Med 67 — Support Center Support Center. Please review our privacy policy.